research – Motion Guidance


From past research, we can gain insight into what promotes better learning, performance, as well as what changes when we undergo injury and what deficits exist. This page includes some of the useful research articles we have found, that in some capacity relate to our current assessement and treatment philosophy regarding the Motion Guidance Concept.

Research Citations:

Kim et al. Effect of axial shoulder external rotation exercise in side-lying using visual feedback on shoulder external rotators 

This study, involving a total of twenty two healthy subjects (18 males, 4 females) with no shoulder condition investigated the effectiveness of using a laser pointer as a visual feedback tool in axial SWE for selective infraspinatus muscle strengthening.

Roijezon et al. Proprioception in musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Part 1: Basic science and principles of assessment and clinical interventions.

This article discussess background information about the role of proprioception in motor control, assessments, cause and consequence of altered proprioception.

Clark et al. Proprioception in musculoskeletal rehabilitation. Part 2: Clinical assessment and intervention

This article discussess the role of proprioception in rehabilitation, with more clinical examples of training proprioception in clinic thorugh various inputs.

Balke et al. The laser-pointer assisted angle reproduction test for evaluation of proprioceptive shoulder function in patients with instability

This article hypothesized that changes in the quantity of shoulder capsule distension give inaccurate feedback to the brain via muscle spindles and Golgi Tendon Organs, thus effecting muscle coordination and pulley systems around the shoulder. It also reviews testing the joint positional awareness deficit in injured shoulders at multiple angles using a laser pointer.

Relph, et al. The effect of conservatively treated ACL injury onknee joint position sense.

This article discussess altered proprioception in persons with ACL deficit patients that op-out of surgery, and discusses proprioception deficits seen in this cohort compaired to controls and contralateral limb.

Schabrun et al. Smudging of the Motor Cortex Is Related to the Severity of Low Back Pain

This article discussess altered somatosensory representation that is associated with injury. It provides evidence of a relationship between organisation of M1 in LBP and pain severity, duration and location. Thus, our mechanisms for controlling movement undergo changes linked to pain levels.

Woodhouse et al. Altered motor control patterns in whiplash and chronic neck pain

This article discussess WAD and chronic neck pain, and finds that both conditions present with alter motor control along with reduced ROM (cervical rotation). Despite continuity in JPE among groups, conjunt motion was reduced in the injured groups, thus changes in ROM may reflect changes in CNS processing rather than altered afferent inputs in this study.

Vries et al. Joint position sense error in people with neck pain: A systematic review

This article discussess JPSE (Joint Positional Sense Error) testing and finds it a valuable relaiable test, though highlights that it must be used correctly, in particular regard to the amount of repititions tested (at least 6 trials).

Yu-Ri Kim et al. Effects of trajectory exercise using a laser pointer on electromyographic activities of the gluteus maximus and erector spinae during bridging exercises

This article discussess the addition of visual external cues using a laser pointer to enhance challenge and performance demand during a standard glut exercise: they found statistically increased glut max and erector spinae muscle activation during tasks involving the addition of external cues.

Van Vliet et al. Motor control and the management of musculoskeletal dysfunction

This article discussess components of proprioception and motor control: feed-forward mechanism, cortical plasticity, and task specificity. These domains are affecteed by injury and pain, and the article discussess clinical implications of rehab in these areas.

Elsig et al. Sensorimotor tests, such as movement control and laterality judgment accuracy, in persons with recurrent neck pain and controls.

This article discussess advocacy of multimodal assessment of sensorimotor ability and cortical representation in neck pain. The CCFT test, testing lateral judgement accuracy, and various movement control tests are recommended.

Herrington et al.  Evaluation of shoulder joint position sense in both asymptomatic and rehabilitated professional rugby players and matched controls

This article discussess sensorimotor deficits following repeated tackling in rugby players, as well as JPE in injured shoulders.

Treleaven et al. Dizziness, Unsteadiness, Visual Disturbances, and Sensorimotor Control in Traumatic Neck Pain 

This article discussess the presence of cervical afferent dysfunction in the development of unsteadiness, dizziness, and various motor contorl deficits. It outlines the need to assess these deficits with assessemnts of the sensorimotor control system, including using laser pointer feedback for speficic body awareness drills.

Treleaven et al. Dizziness and Unsteadiness Following Whiplash Injury: Characteristic Features and Relationship with Cervical Joint Position Error

This article discusses cervical joint positional sense error in a whiplash cohort.

Heikkila et al. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility, active range of cervical motion, and oculomotor function in patients with whiplash injury

This article discussess inpairments related to WAD injury, including oculomotor function.

Wulf et al. Frequent external-focus feedback enhances motor learning

This article discussess learning strategy and rehabilitation implications of what we know about motor learning. In particular, it advocates external focus cues in enhancing performance and retention.

Brooks et al. Concussion increases odds of sustaining a lower extremity musculoskeletal injury after return to play among collegiate athletes

This article discussess the global affects of concussion, including deficits in the entire body: this information calls for a multimodal intervention, and highlights importance of challinging proprioception the body as a whole post concussion.