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past research identifies a lack of positional awareness in persons post injury, and supports external cues over internal cues.

"joint positional awareness" has been shown to be altered

  • in the lumbar region in persons with chronic back pain

  • in the cervical region in persons post whiplash 

  • in the shoulder with persons diagnosed with instability

Click to download a PDF of current research below:

This article discusses joint positional error that exists after whiplash injury

This article discusses joint positional error that exists after whiplash injury


This article discusses joint positional error that exists in persons with shoulder instablity

This article discusses joint positional error that exists in persons with shoulder instablity


This article discusses altered motor control that exists after whiplash injury

This article discusses altered motor control that exists after whiplash injury


This article discusses the concept that using external cues are superior to internal cues for motor learning

This article discusses the concept that using external cues are superior to internal cues for motor learning


This article demonstrates superior EMG muscle function when exercise is accompanied with visual feedback

This article demonstrates superior EMG muscle function when exercise is accompanied with visual feedback


This article discusses general concepts in training proprioception in rehabilitation: Part 1

This article discusses general concepts in training proprioception in rehabilitation: Part 1


This article discusses general concepts in training proprioception in rehabilitation: Part 2

This article discusses general concepts in training proprioception in rehabilitation: Part 2


This article reveals that motor skill training is more effective in creating cortical plasticity changes than strength training.

This article reveals that motor skill training is more effective in creating cortical plasticity changes than strength training.


This article discusses some of the concepts of cortical reorganization that is associated with chronic pain. 

This article discusses some of the concepts of cortical reorganization that is associated with chronic pain.